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Book 29 of 39 in The Old Testament


Author & date

Nothing is known of Joel, nor the date when this book was written.  The internal evidence would favour a pre-exile date or  a post exile date.  Many commentators favour a pre-exile date


A. Present Calamity Ch.1:1-2:27

  1. Setting Ch.1:1
  2. Locust Plague Ch.1:2-20
    1. Call to reflect
      1. Old men & inhabitants
      2. Drunkards
      3. Worshippers
      4. Husbandman & Vinedressers
    2. Call to humiliation
      1. Priests
      2. Elders & inhabitants
      3. The reason
      4. The cry to God
  3. Blowing the trumpet Ch.2:1-27
    1. An Alarm
      1. Announcement
      2. The day of the Lord
      3. Appeal from God
    2. A Fast
      1. A Solemn Assembly
      2. Answer of God
      3. Restoration

B. Future Blessings Ch.2:28-3:21

  1. Spirit Poured out  Ch.2:28-32
    1. All Flesh
    2. Wonders
    3. Deliverance
  2. Valley of Jehoshaphat Ch.3:1-8
    1. The Time period
    2. The valley and gathering
    3. God’s recompense
  3. Valley of decision Ch.3:9-21
    1. Judgement of the heathen
    2. The harvest
    3. The Lord in Zion
      1. To know the Lord
      2. Fountain of life
      3. Desolation & dwelling


a. Scroggie’s dating

Scroggie favours a pre-exile dating of around 837-880 BC. This he does by comparing Joel’s prophecy with that of Amos’s, whose date we know. cmp Joel 3:16 with Amos 1:2 & Joel 3:18 & Amos 9:13. Though these  may have been quoted by one or the other.

Scroggie concludes that the evidence places Joel in the reign of Jehoash, though Halley’s Bible handbook suggests Uzziah’s reign as an alternative.