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Book 2 of 39 in The Old Testament


The second book of the Bible, its name is from the Greek meaning ‘ departure’. A look at its authenticity is to be found in the section dealing with the Pentateuch , whole. This book has to do with the redemption of the children of Israel from Egypt. The book divides into two sections: the historical account of the Exodus and the giving of the Law at Sinai.

1. Chapter Outline

Section Ref. Notes
Narrative 1-2 The bondage of the Israelites and early life of Moses
3-4 The call of Moses
5-12 The confrontation with Pharaoh

God sends Moses to demand Israel’s release
Ref. Moses Pharoah’s response Result /Plague
5-6 Let my people go I know not God Bondage made worse
7 Shows the sign of the rod magicians copy the signs (I) Nile turned to blood
8:1-15 Let my people go hardens his heart (II) Frogs
8:16-19 hardens his heart (III) Lice
8:20-24 Let my people go (IV) Flies
8:25-26 Compromise offer 1:sacrifice in the land Moses insists on a 3-day journey.
8:27-32 Compromise offer 2:sacrifice, but not too far away The flies removed but Pharoah further hardens his heart
9:1-7 Let my people go (V) Murrian of cattle
9:8-12 hardens his heart (VI) Boils
9:13-35 hardens his heart (VII) Hail
10:1-11 How long do you refuse? Compromise offer 3:go, but only the men, leave the families behind! Moses driven from Pharoah
10:12-20 hardens his heart (VIII) Locusts
10:21-23 hardens his heart (IX) Darkness
10:24-29 Compromise offer 4:go, but leave the flocks behind! Moses refuses, and is driven from Pharoah with orders not to see his face again
11-12 (X) Passover

The final plague results in the death of the death of all the firstborn, not covered by the lamb’s blood, in Egypt; this finally forces Pharoah’s hand.

13-19 The way to Sinai

13:1-22 The Children of Israel leave with the bones of Joseph
14:1-31 The crossing of the Rea sea, the Egyptians pursue and are drowned
15:1-22 Israel rejoice
15:23-26 The waters of Marah
15:27 At Elim
16:1-36 The provision of manna
17:1-7 The smiting of the rock at Massah & Meribah
17:8-15 The battle with Amalek
18:1-27 Jethro’s visit to Moses
19:1-25 Arrival at Sinai
The Law 20-24 The ten commandments and various laws.
25-31; 3539
The Tabernacle instructions and construction.
Instructions in order. Ref. Reason Order of fulfilment/ construction Ref.
1. People to offer 25:1-9 To build a place for God to dwell among them .25:8 1 35:1-29;36:1-7
2. The Ark of the Covenant 25:10-16 To put the testimony in.25:16 7 37:1-5
3. The Mercy Seat 25:17-22 To meet and commune with .25:16 8 37:6-9
4. The Table of Shewbread 25:23-30 To put the shrewbread on.23:30 9 37:10-16
5.The Candlestick/Lampstand 25:31-40 To give light.25:37 10 37:17-24
6. Curtains 26:1-14 To make the Tabernacle with.26:1A covering upon the Tabernacle26:7A covering upon the Badgers’ skins26:14 3 36:8-19
7. The Boards 26:15-30 For the Tabernacle26:15 4 36:20-34
8. The Vail 26:31-35 To divide the Holy of holies from the Holy place.26:33 5 36:35
9. Hangings 26:36-37 For the door and entrance.26:36 6 36:36-38
10. The Altar of burnt offering 27:1-8 For sacrifice ( implied) 13 38:1-7
11. Hangings and pillars 27:9-19 For the Court27:9 15 38:9-20
12. Pure Olive oil 27:20-21 For the Lamp ? ?
13. Priests’ garment and anointing 28-29 For ministering unto God:28:4; 16 39:1-31
The continual Burnt Offering29:38-45
14. The Altar of Incense 30:1-10 To burn incense30:1 11 37:25-28
The Atonement money30:11-16
15. The Laver 30:17-21 For the Priests to wash their hands and feet.30:21 14 38:8
16. The Holy Anointing oil 30:22-23 To anoint the Tabernacle and Priests30:26, 30 12 37:29
17. Perfume 30:34-38 To put before the testimony in the Tabernacle30:36
18. Appointment of Bezaleel and Aholiab 31:1–11 To be filled with skill in all types of workmanship 2 35:30-35
The sum of materials used in the Tabernacle.38:21-31
32-35 Israel’s sin and their restoration
40 The Tabernacle set up, one year after the Exodus.

2. Its Typology

Its factual historical account of the Exodus and its surrounding events give much typical teaching of the redemption that is in Jesus Christ. We only have space to outline some of the teachings here. The following NT scriptures gives us three examples:

A. Christ our Passover

Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us:
Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.
I Cor. 5: 7 – 8

Christ our passover! The passover was killed, its blood applied to the households and the lamb eaten inside. Jesus the Lamb was slain His blood applied and we are to eat of Him. Jn. 6:53-57

B. Baptised into Christ

Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea; And did all eat the same spiritual meat; And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.

I Cor. 10: 1 – 4

The crossing of the Red sea typifies our baptism into Christ by the Holy Spirit, ie. new birth. I Cor. 12:13; Eph. 4:5

C. The Tabernacle
Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary. For there was a tabernacle made; the first, wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and the shewbread; which is called the sanctuary. And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all; Which had the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant overlaid round about with gold, wherein was the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant; And over it the cherubims of glory shadowing the mercy seat; of which we cannot now speak particularly. Now when these things were thus ordained, the priests went always into the first tabernacle, accomplishing the service of God. But into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people: The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing: Which was a figure for the time then present,..

Heb. 9:1 onwards.

Our final example is that of the Tabernacle; the above passage highlights from Scripture itself some of its typical meaning. It is tempting to give more detail here, but that would be out of place in an outline. It is hoped that such a very brief mention here will encourage the Bible student to pursue the themes for themselves.
3. The Exodus and Egyptian history

Many people do not accept the truth of the historical narrative of Exodus, because of the ( supposing) lack of extra biblical evidence of the exodus in Egyptian records, which one would expect considering the type of civilisation Egypt was. There are three points to be made here:

1. This argument has been used against the Bible before, only to collapse when archaeology has turned up supporting evidence. For example, for many years it was thought that Ninevah, capital of Assyria, was only mentioned in scripture and, because evidence was not to be found of its existence, many saw this as proof of the Bible not being true. However, in the 19th Century the remains of the ancient city were discovered, thus confounding the sceptics. The fact is when it comes to looking into the past we only have partial evidence, at best, or no evidence at all; and absence of evidence is not evidence of absence! An excellent book looking at Biblical archaeology is The Stones Cry Out by Dr. Randall Price (1997) Harvest House Publishers, where these matters are looked at in detail by a christian expert in the field.

2. The main attack on the exodus comes from considering the chronology of ancient Egypt: that is by comparing the Biblical chronology with the accepted Egyptian one, no evidence can be found for the events of Exodus when looking at the Egyptian records for the time period that the Bible demands. However the question is: why is it that the Bible is always assumed wrong? The accepted Egyptian chronology is not as infallible as many scholars would have us believe. In fact there has been much debate in recent times about the Egyptian chronology with many revisionists putting forth their own schemes, and the matter is not settled by a long way. The link below gives a view from a Christian perspective on the current debate to show how fluid the topic is.

3. Our trust in the Bible does not depend on extra – Biblical evidence. After all many of the people in the scientific field are unbelievers, with their own agendas! It is good when there is supporting evidence, but our faith does not rely on that. If we accept the inspiration of scripture then we must accept the Bible as a whole and therefore the story of the Exodus as it is written: it all stands or falls together.