The Burnt Offering:  Part 1

Its Purpose


Approach  Acceptance  Atonement  Ascending



 And the LORD called unto Moses, and spake unto him out of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, If any man of you bring an offering unto the LORD, ye shall bring your [approach] offering of the cattle, even of the herd, and of the flock.  If his offering be a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD. And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him.............a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour [of rest] unto the LORD.

Lev.1:1-9


In this first part  on the Burnt Offering we are going to consider some aspects of Jesus as our representative man and consequently what we are in Christ as a result. The Burnt Offering is laid out in Lev. 1 & 6:8-13 & 7:8. It is the first offering mentioned in Leviticus. We note that in this, and indeed in the first three offerings 
(burnt, gift and peace) individual  sins are not mentioned. For these offerings were not dealing with specific sins, the sin and trespass offerings were for that, but rather our standing before God, that is how  we can come before a holy God when we have a sinful nature that is inherited from Adam. In NT terms we could render this as to dealing with our justification
.

(I) Approaching

We first note that the first three offerings already mentioned in Leviticus have a common thread. Namely that  in Hebrew the words for offering /oblation used are as follows, the words in square brackets indicate the full meaning in the Hebrew.

If any man of you bring an [approach] offering….  Lev1:2

And when any will offer a meat [gift] offering unto the Lord his [approach] offering    Lev2:1

And if his oblation [=approach offering]....Lev3:1



What we are being shown is simply that we cannot approach God without sacrifice. Before Christ came to offer Himself on our behalf God allowed animal sacrifices to be made so that people could approach Him.

 One example of this is shown in the early chapters of Genesis. Adam and Eve lost the right to fellowship with God because of sin. God expelled then from Eden and put Cherubim on guard so that they could not return and approach the tree of life. They were banished from God's presence, Gen.3. Later their two sons wanted to approach God, and they came with an offering Gen.4:1-8.  Abel’s [gift] offering was made to God with the firstlings of the flock Cain’s had no animal offering in his at all. God accepted Abel but not Cain. God told Cain clearly that if he did well he would be accepted. The conclusion is that to approach  God sacrifice was necessary.

This shows the grace of God indeed. For before the great eternal sacrifice at Calvary, God allowed less than what was His justice rightly demanded in order for people to approach Him. But of course it was all  the foreshadowing of the coming of Christ.  As we shall see, as we develop the theme, the only sacrifice that would satisfy God's Holy justice was the sacrifice of His dear Son at Calvary. Thus animal sacrifices were never ever sufficient for this, but God allowed them in His mercy, and in so doing  showed us some of the great truths, in picture form,  of the once and for all  great eternal sacrifice of Jesus.

Since  Jesus has now died and is seated on the right hand of God there is now no more sacrifice to be made. We can only approach  God on the basis of Jesus' great sacrifice, there is no other ground whereby we can approach God.  If we reject His great supreme act of sacrifice, with which God is well pleased, then we have no hope of approaching God, for God will no longer accept animal sacrifice. Jn.14:6



(II) Acceptance



....he shall put his hand upon the head of the Burnt offering and it shall [ ie completely and definitely] be accepted for him
Lev.1:4

When someone brought their offerings the first act was for the offerer  to put their hands on the animal. This is a highly significant piece of symbolism. For laying on of hands signifies identification, and/or transfer. The example par excellence of this was the Day of Atonement. In Lev.16. We see two goats, one was for the sins of the nation and the other the ‘scapegoat’. Once the sin offering was made the priest had to lay his hands on the scapegoat, this   signifying  that the sins of the nation were transferred to the animal, which would then be sent into the wilderness. Lev16:20-22. Thus we see that  in this act of laying on of hands  the offerer was identifying himself with the  animal, and in effect  confessing that it was the animal who was to be sacrificed as his substitute. It was the animal that was to be accepted, on his behalf, and not the offerer

The word accepted in the Hebrew can also be translated as well pleasing/ take delight in. Without doubt this immediately points us to Jesus. For on at least two occasions the Father says of Jesus that he was well pleased with Him (Mtt.3:17; 17:5). This gives us a big clue. Jesus was accepted by the Father on our behalf.
As we read the life of Jesus we note how He identified with us humans in every way.

Why did the Father at His baptism say that He was pleased with His Son? This event took place after 30 years of His upbringing in Nazareth. From Luke’s account Jesus increased in wisdom and stature and in favour with God and man. Lk.2:52. During all those years of silence He lived an ordinary family life, with siblings; helping with the family business, indeed at one point in His ministry Jesus is called the carpenter (Mtt.13:55). He tasted ordinary life for us all. Then after three and a half years of ministry He tasted death for everyman.

In all aspects of life Jesus identified Himself wholly with our condition He knew what is was to live a human life, for the Son of God lived as the Son of man on this Earth. Not only in life but, and especially, in death Jesus identified Himself with us.. On the Cross He so identified Himself with us  there that He became sin for us.

Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, He also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death He might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. For verily He took not on him the nature of angels; but He took on him the seed of Abraham. Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that He might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people. For in that He himself hath suffered being tempted, He is able to succour them that are tempted.

Heb.2:14-18
 
For He hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in Him.

II Cor.5:21


The purpose of all this was that we could be identified with Him. If we come to the Father through Jesus acknowledging His substitutionary death for us we will find what Paul said to the Ephesians:


 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein He hath made us accepted in the beloved.

Eph.1:6


Jesus being that beloved one. On new birth we are baptised into the body of Christ, I Cor 12:13,  and because Jesus has been accepted by the Father, if we are in Him, then we too are accepted. Not because of what we have done, or who we are, none  of that counts with God. We are accepted on the ground of what Jesus did at Calvary. We are not  accepted by God by any other means, or for any other reason. We are either accepted because of  Jesus's  death, or not at all. That is God’s condition of us approaching Him, we can bring nothing of our own works that will please the Father, and we certainly cannot take away from what Christ did. All of man’s efforts to please God fail and just hinder anyone approaching God. In fact because we are in Christ we have His benefits. Indeed one of the main themes of Ephesians is what we are in Christ and the benefits of such a union. We shall return to this theme later on.


Rock of Ages, cleft for me,
Let me hide myself in thee;
Let the water and the blood,
From thy wounded side which flowed,
Be of sin the double cure;
Save from wrath and make me pure.

Not the labours of my hands
Can fulfil thy law's commands;
Could my zeal no respite know,
Could my tears forever flow,
All for sin could not atone;
Thou must save, and thou alone.

Nothing in my hand I bring,
Simply to the cross I cling;
Naked, come to thee for dress;
Helpless, look to thee for grace;
Foul, I to the fountain fly;
Wash me, Saviour, or I die.

While I draw this fleeting breath,
When mine eyes shall close in death,
When I soar to worlds unknown,
See thee on thy judgment throne,
Rock of Ages, cleft for me,
Let me hide myself in thee.

Augustus Toplady


Accepted in the well Beloved
And clothed in righteousness Divine
I see the bar to heaven removed
And all Thy merits Lord are mine


Charles Wesley


(III) Atonement

....he shall put his hand upon the head of the Burnt offering and it shall [ ie completely and definitely] be accepted for him to make atonement.
Lev.1:4


The next word for our consideration is atonement. The Burnt offering was to make atonement for the offerer. The word atonement means covering and in most of the OT sacrifices it was used in connection with the covering of sin. In the NC sin is not covered but cleansed.

However, as has been mentioned already, this offering has nothing to do with individual sins but with the standing before God of the individual. This word atonement is used in another way in the OT and it is will serve us well to consider how. Once we have done that we can then relate it a word used in the NT concerning Christ’s redemptive work.

(a) the flood


Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch [=to cover or make atonement]

Gen.6:14

 Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water.  The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ:
I Pet.3:20-21

What we want is to see what this catastrophic event teaches us in relation to our subject. The second  quote above gives us a clue. The flood and the surrounding events is a picture/type of our salvation. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this article, but a summary will suffice for our purposes.

The world steeped in its wickedness has the sentence of judgement passed on it by God. He was going to destroy the earth with a universal flood. However He found a righteous man, Noah, and through him would save a remnant of people and animals for what would be a new earth after the flood. To do this Noah was instructed to build an ark. He was given the blueprint, measurements and instructions concerning its construction. Part of those instructions included  putting pitch over the wood. The pitch was a watertight covering to save the vessel, and those inside, from the destructive forces of the judgement waters.

The word pitch in the Hebrew means  to cover or, to make atonement. Thus the water tight pitch would cover or atone those inside. The ark would feel the judgement waters of God, but those inside would not, they would be safe from the wrath of God.

 Here we have a perfect illustration of what Jesus did at Calvary, He took the wrath of God as our substitute. Those who are in Christ have found that Jesus is their Ark, safety is found in Him, and they have discovered that Jesus bore the wrath of God on their behalf. The wrath of God was indeed satisfied.

But more than that! After the flood, after the severe judgement on all flesh, the waters abated and the Ark came to rest. Noah and his family, with the animals, came out on to a new Earth. They had passed from the old creation into a new creation. The old had passed away and all things had become new.


 Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new. And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation; To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ’s stead, be ye reconciled to God. For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.

II Cor.5:17-21



(b) Jacob and Esau

 And say ye moreover, Behold, thy servant Jacob is behind us. For he said, I will appease [make atonement to him/propitiate] him with the present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his face; peradventure he will accept of me.

Gen.32:20


We are now taken to the life of Jacob and Esau. Once more a full account is not within the scope of this article, so a quick summary to where we are in the story is given.

After having cheated his brother, of both the birthright and blessing, Jacob fled in fear of his life to his uncle Laban. After many years, living away from home with uncle Laban, Jacob decided to return home. But there was a problem: he had to face his brother Esau whom he had wronged. Jacob was not sure what reception he would get from Esau, so he devises a cunning plan in order to save his own skin. Part of that plan was to give Esau a gift in order to appease him so that Jacob would be accepted by Esau.

It is this word appease that is important for our consideration. The word means  to make atonement or propitiation. and is used as making   appeasement. It can be understood to mean: to cause his anger to cease, to hide ( or turn away) his wrath. In other words to remove the cause of the offence. Jacob wanted to make sure that Esau's wrath against him was assuaged, that it had been removed and that by a gift.


For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son...
John .3:31
 And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification.

Rom.5:16

God's wrath against sin is because of His holiness. The human race can not turn the wrath of God away from us no matter what it does. The only remedy was Jesus, he was God's gift to appease His wrath. Jesus became a man and as a man lived as our representative, a theme to be developed more fully in part 2, and on the cross there brought about our justification, he paid the price of our redemption fully. This leads us now into what we have revealed to us in the NT.

(c) Jesus our propitiation


Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin. But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference: For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God; To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.

Rom.3:20-26

In this passage Paul sums up the meaning of Christ's redemptive work. In it the apostle uses the word propitiation. This seems a strange word to our modern ears but let W.E Vine explain to us its meaning in the NT

..It is never used of any act whereby man brings God into a favourable attitude or gracious disposition. It is God who is propitiated by the vindication of His holy and righteous character whereby, through the provision He has made in the vicarious and expiatory sacrifice of Christ, He has so dealt with sin that He can show mercy to the believing sinner in the removal of his guilt and the remission of his sins.

W.E. Vine: Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words



Jesus  was our propitiation that is by His death at Calvary He appeased a Holy God. He removed the cause of the offence that we were guilty of. Our justification is because of what He did on our behalf.
So in this section we concluded that:

We have redemption in Christ Eph.1:7
We are a new creation in Christ II Cor. 5:17
We become the righteousness of God in Him II Cor.5:21

(IV) Ascending

..... ‘ascending sacrifice an offering made by fire a sweet savour (of rest) unto the Lord

Lev.1:9b;13b;17b.



The final consideration in the purpose of the offering is ascending. In the Hebrew Burnt Offering can be translated ‘the ascending offering’. This is because the Burnt Offering  was wholly burnt and, except for the skin, everything was offered up to God. With the other offerings parts of it were held back for the priest to eat, not so with this one.

We see then that the Burnt Offering  was wholly the Lord’s and that is was a sweet savour of rest to Him. This is a glorious picture of Christ’s work and acceptance, from Calvary to His glorification.

In the great plan of redemption we have the following order of events

1) Calvary and the eternal sacrifice with the great cry of it is finished  Jn19:30

2) The resurrection of Jesus the third day. Jesus declared the the Son of God by the resurrection with power according to the Spirit of holiness Rom.1:3-4

3) Jesus' ascension  and glorification  Heb.1:3

When Jesus ascended  into the heavens he sat down, indicating a finished and complete work. In the Tabernacle there were no seats; the work of the priests was continual, they could not rest nor cease from them. But when Jesus sat down on the right hand of the majesty on high He entered into His rest, He ceased from His  works on the Earth for it had  been completed and finished


Lifted up was He to die
It is finished was His cry
Now in heaven exalted high
Hallelujah what a Saviour!


By new birth we are baptised into Christ, we are ‘in Him’. Already we have seen that because we are in Him:

a) We are accepted in the beloved
b) We have redemption in Christ
c) We are new creatures in Christ
d) We become the righteousness of God in Christ


We now turn back to the Ephesian letter.

 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ:

Eph.1:3
But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;)  And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:

Eph.2:4-6

Salvation is much more than escaping future judgement. It is  salvation in its fullest sense. We are saved indeed from the wrath to come, but also from our sins (Mtt.1:21). We are saved from the power and bondage of  sin and the Law (Rom.6-7). These passages in Ephesians gives a us an overall view of things.

Because we are in Christ, and Christ is seated in the heavenlies, we too are seated with Him there. This means that as He has entered His rest, He has ceased from His works, we too do enter into His rest and cease from our works; we only receive the benefits of His accomplished work by faith and not by any effort of our own.

And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose. For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified. What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be against us? He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?


Rom.8:28-32


In this rich seam of scripture there are many wonderful truths for us to dwell on. However for our purposes,  we note that God’s ultimate purpose for  each of His children is to make them  conform to the image of Jesus. Everything is geared to that aim. If we are in Him then it could not be any other way. The all things working together' in verse 28 has to be read in that context. The ultimate working together for good is to bring us into conformity with the image of Jesus.

Secondly, given that every dealing of God with us  has  that aim in view; we consider that as  He has given everything in Jesus then how shall He withhold anything from us? Having given all in Jesus, He has given us the ‘lesser’ things as well.  He has given us all that is necessary for life and godliness II Pet.1:3 Our needs have already been met in Christ.


Putting these ideas together we note then that being in Christ means we are seated with him in the heavenlies and have entered His rest, ceasing from our own works. God has provided all things for us in Christ, and is bringing us into conformity to the  image of His dear Son. Whatever happens in our lives, God is working out His purposes and working them together for good. The application is simple. Whatever our need, whether we think it is big or small it has been met in Christ.  All we have to  do is come to Him in faith ad let Him do his work in  us.